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Saturday, February 7, 2009

Quality Gurus

For everything you wanted to know on building leadership and management, refer Shyam Bhatawdekar’s website:

(Refer our High Quality Management Encyclopedia “Management Universe” at:

Original Quality Gurus

1. Deming

Stresses worker pride and satisfaction rather than the establishment of quantifiable goals and process improvement.

Deming’s profound knowledge system consists of four interrelated parts:

  1. Appreciation for a system
  2. Understanding of variations
  3. Theory of knowledge
  4. Psychology

Fourteen points:

  1. Create consistency of purpose with a plan.
  2. Adopt the new philosophy of quality.
  3. Cease dependence on mass inspection.
  4. End the practice of choosing suppliers based solely on price.
  5. Identify problems and work continuously to improve the system.
  6. Adopt modern methods of training on the job.
  7. Change the focus from production numbers (quantity) to quality.
  8. Drive out fear.
  9. Break down barriers between departments.
  10. Stop requesting improved productivity without providing methods to achieve it.
  11. Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical quotas.
  12. Remove barriers to pride of workmanship.
  13. Institute vigorous education and retraining.
  14. Create a structure in top management that will emphasize the preceding thirteen points every day.

2. Juran

He defines quality as fitness for use in terms of design, conformance, availability, safety and field use. He is prepared to measure everything and relies on systems and problem solving techniques. He focuses on top-down management and technical methods rather than worker pride and satisfaction.

The Juran Trilogy:

I. Quality Planning

Create a process that will be able to meet established goals and do so under operating conditions

  • Establish quality goals
  • Identify the customers
  • Determine the customers' needs
  • Develop product features that respond to the customers' needs
  • Develop processes that are able to produce the product features
  • Establish quality controls
  • Transfer the plans to the operating forces

II. Quality Control

  • Keep the waste from getting worse; meet quality goals during operations
  • Evaluate actual performance
  • Compare actual performance to quality goals
  • Act on the difference

III. Quality Improvement

  • Breaking through to unprecedented levels of performance
  • Prove the need
  • Establish the infrastructure
  • Identify the improvement projects
  • Establish project teams
  • Provide the teams with resources, training, and motivation to:
    - Diagnose the causes and - Stimulate remedies
  • Establish controls to hold the gains

Ten points:

  1. Build awareness of opportunities to improve.
  2. Set goals for improvement.
  3. Organize to reach goals.
  4. Provide training.
  5. Carry out projects to solve problems.
  6. Report progress.
  7. Give recognition.
  8. Communicate results.
  9. Keep score.
  10. Maintain momentum by making annual improvement part of the regular systems and processes of the company.

3. Feigenbaum

He used a total quality control approach that may very well be the forerunner of today’s TQM. He promoted a system for integrating efforts to develop, maintain and improve quality by the various groups in an organization.

Feigenbaum’s philosophy is summarized in his three steps to quality:

  1. Quality leadership
  2. Modern quality technology
  3. Organizational commitment

4. Philip Crosby

His absolutes of quality:

  • Quality = conformance to requirements, not “goodness".
  • System to achieve quality is prevention, not appraisal.
  • Standard = zero defects, not “that’s close enough”.
  • Measurement = price of non-conformance, not indexes.

Fourteen points:

  1. Management commitment.
  2. Quality improvement team.
  3. Quality measurement.
  4. Cost of quality.
  5. Quality awareness.
  6. Corrective action.
  7. Zero defects planning.
  8. Supervisor training.
  9. Zero defects day.
  10. Goal setting.
  11. Error cause removal.
  12. Recognition.
  13. Quality councils.
  14. Do it all over again.

5. Kaoru Ishikawa

Ishikawa built on Feigenbaum’s concept of total quality and promoted greater involvement of all employees from top management to the front line staff and reducing reliance on quality professionals and quality departments. Some key elements of his philosophy are summarized below:

  1. Quality begins at education and ends with education.
  2. The first step in quality is to know the requirement of customers.
  3. The ideal state of quality control occurs when inspection is no longer necessary.
  4. Remove the root cause, not the symptoms.
  5. Quality control is the responsibility of all workers and all divisions.
  6. Do not confuse the means with the objectives.
  7. Put quality first and set your sights on long term profits.
  8. Marketing is the entrance and exit of quality.
  9. Top management must not show anger when facts are presented by subordinates.
  10. 95% of the problems in a company can be solved with simple tools for analysis and
    problem solving.
  11. Data without dispersion information (i.e. variability) are false data.

6. Genichi Taguchi

Taguchi’s approach assumes that smaller the variation about the nominal specification, the better is the quality. He measured quality as the variation from the target value of a design specification and then translated that variation into an economic “loss function” that expresses the cost of variation in monetary terms.

Taguchi also contributed to improving engineering approached to product design. By designing a product that is insensitive to variation in manufacture, specification limits become meaningless. He advocated certain techniques of experimental design to identify the most important design variables in order to minimize the effects of uncontrollable factors on product variation. Thus his approaches attach quality problems early in the design stage rather than react to problems that might arise later in production.

7. Shigeo Shingo

He is associated with Just-in-Time (JIT) system. He also introduced single (digit) minute exchange of die (SMED) system, in which set up times are reduced from hours to single digit minutes. Towards achieving the zero defects, he invented poka-yoke (mistake proofing) system. By using the devices or systems using poka-yoke principle, even a single mistake is not allowed at all, even inadvertently. Poka-yoke device identifies the problem and even before the item is processed, the production process is stopped and corrections incorporated in the system after root cause analysis. Thus, not a single defect is produced, nor it gets sent to the customer.

For More Guidance, Assistance, Training and Consultation


Also refer: (Prodcons Group)
(Training Programs by Prodcons Group)
(Productivity Consultants)

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